In my last article, Driving Innovative Strategy through Empathetic Observation, I introduced the Empathy Map as a technique to aid your team in conducting insight generating field immersion research. It is intended to supplement the hard research you collect as a part of any planning process, and should promote a deeper understanding of your industry, business product, service or customer.
The goal of conducting Empathetic Observations is to enable you to go deeper into the motivations that drive customer behavior. This helps you to ask better questions to identify the more important problems to solve. This is the path to achieving breakthrough ideas.
Imagine Apple, a strictly computer company in 2000. How did they transition from making Mac and Apple computers to the revolutionary iPOD? At that time we mostly listened to our music on CD’s. A number of companies–including Creative Labs, and Sony-had been selling MP3 players for a few years but none of them had been big hits. So, in this case, Apple didn’t invent the concept, but it was about to revolutionize it, by understanding consumer attitudes and desires better than all the competitors at that time.
The Apple Team was somehow able to sense the possibility of the congruence of computers, the internet, and a lightweight (MP3-like) portable and personal device that could really change the game. They did their own assessment of the market and consumer needs. They recognized that the slow adoption of MP3 devices was partly due to price, partly due to its features, and partly due to the lack of an enabling infrastructure.
The 1999 Creative Labs Nomad had 32 MB of memory. That’s enough for about 1 or 2 CDs and cost US$429. In 2000, the digital music market was still pretty young and people were being pursued in court over the violation of copyright laws when they downloaded or copied “illegal” music. There was no organized “store” from which you could download music. Using MP3’s was cumbersome and risky. Yet Jobs and his team saw the possibility of delivering mass customized music on demand – listeners could hear what they wanted, anywhere, and at any time.
Apple spoke with consumers and thought about the problem holistically. Their solution:
1) Increased memory – the first iPOD could store about 1,000 songs
2) Simpler operator interface – not buttons or hard to read dials, but a circular touch-sensitive element you could direct with the light touch of a finger
3) Lower cost – the first iPOD cost $250 – about half of the Creative Labs version
4) A convenient and legal platform for easily transferring music content to the device – Apple’s APP store was created to offer this and it ultimately morphed into iTunes
5) Easy integration to your PC – by downloading iTunes on your PC, you had now one simple way to organize, categorize and manage your music collection, create customized playlists and to easily plug-in and download to your iPod
So now a holistic solution was present, and the iPOD took off, selling a quarter billion units in 7 or 8 years, leaving the competition in the dust. It totally transformed how we all think about media. WE are in control. It led to the creation of “podcasting”, and is behind the trend of streaming video, TV programs, and books.
My hypothesis is that Apple’s competitors chose to see themselves as device makers – good at mass production. They expected the retail sector to suck their products out the end of their supply chain as they had in the past. The Apple team (under Steve Job’s direction) came to understand it needed to integrate all the above elements to satisfy consumers.
Using Your Empathy Map
The Empathy Maps your teams create are what lead to these insights – to more problems to solve that can bring about revolutionary change. The “problem” for the tech industry was NOT how to make a better MP3 player. Above I listed five major problems that ALL needed to be solved, and integrated together (price, memory, user interface, access to content, and integration.) All five needed solutions for the revolution to take place. While I’m not sure, it is plausible that the engineers at Creative Labs looked at the problem one dimensionally, like we need to lower cost, or we need bigger memory. (Check out the link below suggesting that by as late as 2007, Creative’s designers still didn’t get the whole picture.)
So how do you go from the empathy maps to these innovative solutions? Here are the steps.
1) Have your teams share with the whole group their empathy maps and their main conclusions – 3-4 bullet points from each section of the Empathy Map
2) Invite the assembled group to begin defining as many “problems” as possible by reading each of the bullet points and allowing your mind to run free. Remember the Linus Pauling quote when he was asked how do you come up with a good idea? “It helps”, he replied, “to begin with a lot of them!” Write down these problems in the form of a “how might we” statement, such as “How Might We: make it easier for customers to transfer music to their device? Write each of these How Might We statements down on individual post it notes, and transfer them to a large board or wall. Get as many ideas down as possible.
3) Then group the ideas according to which ones seem to be related and put a heading on each grouping. I am imagining in the iPOD case at least five main categories as outlined above: price, memory, user interface, access to content, and integration. Can you picture it? 5 labels with multiple post it notes grouped nearby.
4) Assign teams to work within each problem area to generate ideas to solve these problems.
Some of you might argue that a process such as I am advocating may be too time consuming and requires too many resources pulled away from their day jobs. If that is your impression, I would ask only “what is the cost of failing to do the kind of thorough analysis that leads to the holistic solution?” Apple’s market share in the iPOD business was over 75% by 2007. It enjoyed a zero share in 2000. Those share points came from someone.
How Apple Transformed Music and Our Lives, by Sam Costello, About.com